Jonathan L. Cadd is the former education, codes and standards coordinator for IAEI. Jon spent eighteen years in Arizona as an electrical inspector, chief electrical inspector and assistant building official for the town of Payson. Jon is a member of Code Panel 14 for the 2011 NEC code cycle, representing IAEI. He serves as a committee member for NECA’s National Electrical Installation Standards (NEIS) for various standards. He teaches nationally for IAEI and taught for many years in Arizona for AZBO Institute. Jon holds ICC, IAEI, NFPA and AIBD certifications and an Arizona K-11 dual commercial/residential–master electrical license. Jon is past president of the Southwestern Section of IAEI and served for two terms as chapter president of the Central Arizona Chapter of IAEI.
SCADA and Homeland Security
Not so long ago when an industrial plant operator needed to redirect flows or even start and stop a procedure, it was often times a long and arduous process of turning valves, painstaking sequences, and long trips from area to area within a plant or facility with a handheld radio. While there are still facilities that might require this type of manual operation, the landscape has significantly changed, with the introduction of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA).
Intersystem Bonding, 250.94
Cycle after cycle, men and women tirelessly volunteer their time and expertise in the electrical industry to meet together to forge yet another version of the NEC — this year the 2014. As I sat beside and observed these hardworking volunteers, I was reminded of an earlier group who were similarly engaged.
Keeping What We Make, the Need to Store Energy
While current methods used to produce energy are abundant, and the race for renewable energy is moving ahead at an unprecedented pace, what about the means to store the energy that has been generated, and the option to reuse this energy for another time?
Critical Operations Data Systems
In a world that almost surely would cease to function from day to day without the ability to access basic data, what happens when the critical data can no longer be accessed? The need to reliably access data has been woven into the fabric of our everyday lives. Whether you buy into it or not, almost everything we do involves the use of data in some form or fashion.
DC: The Return of the Titan
With both the home and the workplace seemingly powered by alternating current (AC), the question has been asked throughout the electrical industry, Has direct current (DC) really gone the way of the old Ford Model T? Quite the contrary, direct current is alive and well. In this article we will look at the origins of AC and DC power and see how the two differ.
Electrical Plan Review in the Emerging Renewable Economy
Get ready for the new future of the renewable, alternative, everything-we-can-invent-and-provide-an-infrastructure-for era. The second wind of the 21st century is upon us, and the best technological minds available have joined forces to help consumers and users of these new technologies usher in this bright new future. With the flood of these new technologies growing daily by leaps and bounds, we now have to look toward global solutions to harness the power that is to be provided in various ways by these emerging technologies.
The Art of Dispenser Safety: A Safe Environment for Vehicle Fueling Station Maintenance
With the new 2011 National Electric Code hitting the streets all over the country, I am often asked, "Are we there yet?” No, this isn’t that yearly trip to the in-laws’ house halfway across the country, with one question seared into your brain that you know you will hear 500 more times before you arrive.
Luminaires, Lighting, and LEDs
Since the dawn of mankind when fire was discovered and the light derived from it started man’s quest to conquer the night and eliminate darkness, we have searched for the perfect light source: a source that would give us an infinite amount of light for all of our daily and nightly activities, yet cost but a fraction to operate; a source that would use little energy yet produce reliable, brilliant, usable light on demand time after time; a source that would be attractive and functional for several years. The high-tech lighting that exists today is nothing short of a miracle and magnificent to behold, as it mesmerizes both mind and eye, while at the same time providing for our daily needs.
EVs, PHEVs and the Electric Car Revolution — It’s not your parent’s old hand-me-down
Remember when we were kids, and dreams of the time when we could fly in our cars like George Jetson filled our thoughts on long summer afternoons? Well, get ready for the new generation of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). While not quite ready for flight, these sleek, stylish, modern marvels of technology show the auto manufacturing industry’s desire to provide a mainstream alternative passenger vehicle that is powered from electricity and the desire to reach a point where we can finally eliminate our sole reliance on fossil fuel and the internal combustion engine (ICE). These new versions of electric vehicle technology not only offer us an alternative to the currently used modes of transportation, but will be able to sustain us and provide a source of backup power that will even be able to power our homes in times of emergency.
Air Conditioning… An Idea That’s Not as New As We Think!
Air conditioning is a twentieth century phenomenon. The Romans had aqueducts. The British discovered electricity. The Americans had an engineer whose invention to control temperature and humidity changed the world forever — welcome to the air conditioner.
Renewable, Reliable, and Abundant Wind Energy — The Future is Here and Now!
Imagine, if you will, a nation powered by a renewable, reliable, abundant, and virtually silent source of fuel that can be converted readily and efficiently to supply an ever-increasing demand for electricity. Imagine a source of fuel that will lessen the demands for fossil fuels, the threat of depleting the ozone and the global concern over ever-increasing carbon footprints. Not to mention a source of fuel that produces no pollution and is projected to save 4 trillion gallons of water in the U.S. alone by the year 2030. "Kryptonite?” you ask. Not quite, the source is here in our galaxy and right in our own backyards.
Stray Voltage — Catching What We Cannot See
"Where the cow won’t give milk anymore” is a standard lyric in old classic country songs; perhaps you’ve wondered why. Well, back in the early days many strange and downright bizarre occurrences happened on the farm, most of which were thought to be the product of superstition, bad living or old wives’ tales; but that was before modern measuring equipment, grounding methodologies, equipotential planes, voltage gradient ramps (transition areas) and ensuring a low-impedance path to ground. Let’s compare what many have believed and what modern principles of electricity have proven to be the real culprit and, in many cases, the reason for these strange and often devastating occurrences that plagued many livestock farms in the U.S. and throughout the world.
Hazardous Area Classification: Division or Zone — You Do Have a Choice
OK all you sports fans out there, it’s football season; and everyone is fired up and running out to buy the latest item of team gear to show their support. But, hey, wait just a minute; your team did real well last season, but maybe it’s time to make a different choice for this season. I know you’re thinking to yourself, What do football and hazardous locations have to do with each other, right? Well, just like with football teams, in a hazardous (classified) area, you also have a choice.