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March-April 1999
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March-April 1999 CoverMarch/April 1999


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Fountains: History and Interpretations of Article 680 – Swimming Pools, Fountains, and Similar Installations

by Robert Milatovich

First a little history of the National Electrical Code (NEC) dealing with the title of Article 680 and the addition of Part E. Fountains. The title of Article 680 in the 1962 NEC was "Swimming Pools” and remained that until the 1971 NEC when the title was changed to "Swimming and Wading Pools.” Then in the 1975 NEC the title was changed to "Swimming Pools, Fountains and Similar Installations.” Fountains were added to Article 680 as Part D. In the 1981 NEC Article 680, Part D was changed to Part E of Article 680, with the section numbers being changed from Section 680-40’s to 680-50’s. Read more


Taking the Guesswork out of Selecting and Maintaining Molded Case Circuit Breakers


The National Electrical Manufacturers Association has just what you need to answer your circuitbreaker application and preventive maintenance questions. NEMA publishes two standards that provide a wealth of information to help users and specifiers select and maintain circuit breakers. Read more


Charge! EVs Power Up For The Long Haul

by Craig B. Toepfer

When smog kept suffocating three sprawling cities—Los Angeles, Paris, and Tokyo—in the early 1990s, a standardized infrastructure for charging electric vehicles (Evs) was at last seen as a worthwhile goal. The superiority of clean Evs to dirty gas-powered transportation was borne in on everyone as never before. But Evs stood no chance of success without a refueling infrastructure that matched the corner gas pump for availability and ease of use. The ultimate in convenience would be an infrastructure that let Evs charge up at home. Read more



A New Breakthrough in Electrical Safety Proves Itself

by Arthur "Bud" Botham

Imagine yourself with the responsibility to provide more than 50,000 amps of safe electrical power over 140 miles of distribution cable powering 5,000 lighting units, day and night, for over seven months. Now add the following: 3,000 "practical” units will be repeatedly submerged in sea water, and, if that’s not enough, hundreds of swimmers will be in close proximity to these submerged sources while fully energized.Read more




Electrical Inspector Certification Program in the United States

by Philip Cox

Certification is an important step in the progression of becoming a truly professional, highly trained and skilled electrical inspector. The Canadian Section of the IAEI promotes an inspector certification program in Canada and operates separately from its counterpart in the United States. An article on the Canadian Electrical Inspector Certification Program is scheduled for a later date. Read more

Canadian Code

Changes in the Canadian Electrical Code (1998): Sections 18 and 20

by Leslie Stoch

Sections 18 and 20 of the Canadian Electrical Code define hazardous locations and specify the types of electrical equipment and wiring methods acceptable in areas where flammable or explosive materials are handled, stored or produced. In such areas, the risk of a fire or explosion may exist due to the presence of flammable gases or vapours. The electrical code provides requirements for protection in hazardous locations, from electrical ignition sources, due to the effects of electrical arcing or heating. Read more

UL Question Corner

I recently encountered a lightning protection system on a water treatment plant that was certified by UL. What is a "Letter of Findings”?

by Underwriters Laboratories

I recently encountered a lightning protection system on a water treatment plant that was certified by UL with what was referred to as a ‘Letter of Findings.’ The only type of lightning protection certification I’m familiar with is the UL Master Label. What is a ‘Letter of Findings,’ and what other types of certifications currently are available for lightning protection systems? Read more

Other Code

An Inspector’s Most Common Hazardous Conditions

by David C. Young

I spend a lot of time inspecting electric supply facilities for hazardous conditions and violations of the National Electrical Safety Code® (NESC®). Even when I’m on vacation, I don’t stop inspecting. I’ve shared the "problems” with my wife so often that now she points them out to me. I’ve driven all over the United States and find that no matter where I go, the hazards are out there, particularly in non-utility owned supply facilities. Read more

Closer Look

Article 695, Fire Pumps

by Robert Duncan

Article 695 first appeared in the 1996 National Electrical Code, it covers the electrical construction and installation portion for Fire Pumps. The performance, maintenance and testing requirements are in NFPA 20. Read more

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