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January-February 2000
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Secondary Ground-Fault Protection in Neon Signs and Outline Lighting

by Michael Faser

All UL Listed signs and outline lighting which incorporate electric discharge tubing are required to use neon transformers and power supplies that comply with UL 2161, the Standard for Neon Transformers and Power Supplies. UL 2161 includes requirements for secondary ground fault protection (SGFP). Read more

Electrode Receptacles and Enclosures

by Paul R. Davis

There are other factors that complicate the situation. Some components are UL Recognized Components while others are UL Listed. UL recognized components are suitable for use only in an overall listed end use product. These recognized components are not suitable for use as field-installed units. Other products may carry a CSA Certification which may differ in some cases from a UL Listing. CSA and UL are both standards writing bodies. Verify the components that are allowable in your jurisdiction to be sure they are suitable for the intended use and acceptable to the AHJ. Read more

Determining Proper Loading for Neon Sign Transformers

by Telford Dorr

Neon sign transformers differ from most other types of transformers one is likely to encounter. Unlike a more conventional transformer, for normal operation a neon sign transformer is specified to operate a minimum, as well as a maximum load. Why is this? To understand this requirement, we must look at what makes a neon sign transformer different from other types. Read more

Neon Tubing Secondary Wiring Methods

by George Doll

This article is intended to address a few of the common neon installation challenges associated with the secondary wiring from the transformer or power supply to the electrodes, as observed by a member of both the life safety and neon communities. Read more

Back to Basics: Grounding and Bonding as it Relates to Signs and Neon Installations

by Michael Johnston

Some features of electrical circuits and electrical systems are so fundamental they have appeared in some form in every edition of the National Electrical Code. These include insulation for wire type conductors, conductor (wire) sizing, and overcurrent protection for circuits (fuses or circuit breakers). Another long-time electrical safety requirement is grounding of electrical systems and equipment for safety. Read more

Check and Be Sure of GFCI Safety Protection


"A safety revolution is underway in the electrical wiring of buildings,” writes Earl Roberts in his book Overcurrents and Undercurrents.1 He is writing about the use of electronics in circuit protection and specifically in the ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI). Just as electronics have enhanced the world of consumer appliances and communication, the use of electronics in the GFCI has resulted in a significant improvement in the safety of electrical systems. Read more



Comments on GFCI Article/IAEI Bonus Points Program

by Philip Cox

An article entitled "Are All Those GFCIs Out There Working?” was printed on pages 66-68 of the November/December 1999 issue of the IAEI News. The printing of that article was in error and I wish to extend an apology to readers of the IAEI News and other interested parties for the premature release of that article. The material was submitted to the IAEI for consideration and a working copy was reviewed. I declined to authorize the printing of the material and that information was relayed to the submitter. Read more

Other Code

The Storage of Hazards

by David Young

The excess space inside electrical supply stations (substations) is often considered for storage of construction materials. The National Electrical Safety Code® (NESC®) in Rule 110B2 prohibits storage inside an electrical supply station even when stored well away from the energized conductors and equipment. The only exception is the storage of minor parts essential to the maintenance of the installed equipment, i.e., fuses, switch handles. Read more

UL Question Corner

Modifications Affect UL Listing

by Underwriters Laboratories

The UL Mark applies to products as they were originally manufactured. UL does not know the effect modifications in the field will have on a product. Therefore, unless the modifications are specifically tested and evaluated by UL, UL cannot say that the modifications void the UL Mark, or that the product continues to comply with UL’s safety... Read more

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