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July-August 2001
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July-August 2001 CoverJuly-August 2001


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The Electrical Inspector and Fire Alarm Systems

by Mark Campbell

Sitting around the morning coffee table waiting for shift change, a group of us discussed the previous night’s calls and the recurring false alarms became the main topic. My captain made a statement that has stuck with me ever since: "Fire codes have been written with the blood of peoples lives!” These ten simple words hold a truism I hope becomes a part of our daily thought processes. Read more

Concrete-encased Electrodes and the Grounding Electrode System

by Michael Johnston

Most buildings or structures employ a structural design that includes a concrete footing or foundation, which connects the structure to the earth. For the building to be structurally sound and stable, a substantial foundation must be established to bring the structure out of the ground. Footings and foundations are typically constructed using concrete and reinforcing rods or bars for structural strength. Read more

Thermal Protection in Recessed Luminaires

by Jim Pierce

Although not much thought is ever given to the little thermal protector that exists in today’s recessed lighting, it plays a big role and the process for getting it there is involved. The thermal protector is a small, silent little device that plays a big part in preventing fires. Self-heating thermal protectors more commonly called SHTP, are devices used in recessed lighting luminaires that sense overheating of the luminaire. Read more

Installation Clearance Requirements for Recessed Luminaries

by Michael O'Boyle

National Electrical Code Article 410 Parts M and N provide special provisions for luminaires (lighting fixtures) installed within recessed cavities in walls or ceilings. Most of these code requirements focus on protecting combustible building materials from temperature greater than 90°C (194°F). To align with the Code, nationally recognized luminaire product standards have been developed that contain testing, construction and marking requirements necessary to list products for recessed applications. Products listed to these requirements are rated for specific required installation clearance between luminaire parts and combustible materials. Read more


Other Code

NEC vs. NESC: Understanding the World of Code

by David Young

Rob and I have been friends for many years even though we were brought up on different sides of the tracks. By different sides of the tracks I mean Rob is a National Electrical Code (NEC) inspector and I am a National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) inspector. Up until the time we met, I didn’t know much about the NEC and Rob didn’t know much about the NESC. This lack of knowledge of the other code is common. Ever since I joined the IAEI, I noticed that most of the NEC experts have very little knowledge of the NESC and that most of the NESC experts have very little knowledge of the NEC. Read more

Canadian Code

Grounding and Bonding CEC/NEC – How Different Are They?

by Leslie Stoch

In Canada, the Canadian Electrical Code and, in the United States, the National Electrical Code both deal extensively with grounding and bonding issues and for the same reasons—to minimize the possibilities of electrical fires and shocks. But in many instances, each code tackles the same issue in a different way, regarding use of terminology, materials and methods of installation. Read more

UL Question Corner

Bi-national Standards for Luminaires Now in Effect

by Underwriters Laboratories

A new, bi-national standard that combines safety requirements for both the United States and Canada went into effect on January 31, 2001. This binational Standard, UL 1598/CSA 250 (or UL 1598/CSA-C22.2, No. 250.0) Standard for Safety for Luminaires, replaces three of the UL 1570 series of Standards for Safety for lighting products, including Fluorescent Lighting Fixtures (UL 1570), Incandescent Lighting Fixtures (UL 1571), and High Intensity Discharge Fixtures (UL 1572), and the Canadian lighting products standard SAC22.2, No. 9.096, General Requirements for Luminaires or CSA Spec. 9. Read more


Shock Hazard Test Probe for Submersible Luminaires for Use in a Pool

by CSA Group

Section 68 of the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, applies to electrical installations and electrical equipment in or adjacent to pools. Read more

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