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January-February 2002
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January-February 2002 CoverJanuary/February 2002


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Installations and Inspections of Corner-grounded Systems

by Michael Johnston

Electrical systems are grounded to limit the voltage imposed by lightning, line surges, or unintentional contact with higher voltage lines and to stabilize the voltage to earth during normal operation. Electrical systems can be grounded in several ways. There are induction grounded systems, resistance grounded systems, and high impedance grounded systems among others. The most common grounded system is the solidly grounded system, where there is no intentional grounding impedance in the earthing or grounding circuit. Common solidly grounded systems are 3-phase, 4-wire, high-leg delta systems; 3-phase, 4-wire, wye-connected systems; and 1-phase 3-wire grounded systems. Read more

A Circuit Breaker or Not a Circuit Breaker…That is the Question

by Andrew DeIonno

You start your day with your first inspection and upon entering the site the owner indicates, reluctantly, that there is some equipment that is not certified and that the facility needs to be up and running by tomorrow morning. It’s a simple machine with a few motors and a small industrial control panel. The system runs at 15 amperes and is on a 30 ampere branch. Read more

Dedicated Equipment Space

by Philip Cox

Provisions in the National Electrical Code covering dedicated space about electrical equipment have experienced a significant degree of modification through the last three Code cycles. In addition, rules covering that space have been relocated from Article 384 to Article 110. The relocation occurred during the 1999 Code cycle and previously identified Section 384-4 was re-identified as 110-26(f). A new title "Dedicated Equipment Space” was also assigned to the relocated set of rules covering indoor installations. Code Making Panel No. 9 has responsibility for Article 384 and changes made during the revision and relocation of 384-4 to 110-26(f) were the result of CMP-9’s actions. Read more

Importance of IAEI Membership to Manufacturers

by Philip Cox

Electrical inspectors demonstrate support of electrical manufacturers and feel they are an integral part of the team dedicated to providing an environment in which consumers can safely use electrical energy. In keeping with that objective, many of these manufacturers have traditionally been and continue to be an important part of the International Association of Electrical Inspectors membership. Many actively participate in section and chapter meetings. Some of those individuals are often involved in code discussion panels and technical presentations and contribute in many other ways to the betterment of the organization and industry. Read more



Involvement in and Commitment to the IAEI

by Philip Cox

The International Association of Electrical Inspectors is fortunate to have some outstanding leaders and workers within its membership. Many work quietly and are hardly noticed, even by fellow members within their own chapter. Occasionally, a letter is received by the International Office from a member who feels that the IAEI is not providing enough services to justify the amount of dues paid. A far greater number of members acknowledge the fact that the IAEI News alone is worth more than the cost of membership. Read more

Canadian Code

Why Should the CEC Interest Electrical Utilities?

by Leslie Stoch

The Canadian Electrical Code Part I gives electrical utilities an exemption from the code for "installations and equipment in its exercise as a utility, located outdoors or in buildings or sections of buildings used for that purpose.” The CEC Part I is "a voluntary code for adoption and enforcement by regulatory authorities.” When adopted into the provincial regulations, this exemption is almost always maintained for work that falls within the scope of an electrical utility’s business. Read more

Other Code

High Voltage Electrical Facilities that are Completely Safe

by David Young

There are hundreds of customers in my company’s service area who own their own high voltage transmission, distribution and/or substation electric supply facilities. The service voltages for these customers range from 4 kV to 138 kV. Read more


Understanding the Canadian Electrical Safety Regulatory System. Part II: Canadian Provinces and Territories

by CSA Group

Canada’s 10 provinces and three territories are the legislated regulatory authorities for electrical safety in Canada. Under the Canadian Constitution there is a division of powers between the federal and provincial/territorial governments. The federal government has jurisdiction over areas such as defense and communications while the provinces and territories have jurisdictional authority over others such as education, health and electrical safety. As a result in Canada, you have 13 separate electrical safety regulatory authorities. Read more

UL Question Corner

With the soaring cost of energy and deregulation of the U.S. electrical power grid, alternate sources of power generation such as photovoltaic and fuel cell technology is on the increase. Does UL List this type of equipment?

by Underwriters Laboratories

UL currently Lists these types of alternative power sources and generation equipment Distributed Generation equipment includes but is not necessarily limited to photovoltaics, fuel cells, engine generator sets, and microturbines. The inverters or converters used to control grid interconnection are also considered to be DG equipment. Read more

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