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May-June 2002
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May-June 2002 CoverMay-June 2002


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Training for Safety and the Future

by Michael Johnston

May is Electrical Safety Month. During this time, many industry professionals and organizations try to focus on the safety aspect of the industry. From enhanced electrical safety writings to seminar offerings, it seems as though students of the Code at all levels contribute in some form or fashion. Electrical safety is no accident. Safe electrical installations have an absolute dependence on safety training. This article emphasizes the importance of electrical training and the critical role of those who train electrical workers and inspectors. Read more

The Effects of Globalization of Trade on Conformity Assessment

by Nick Maalouf

The objective of this article is to provide IAEI members information on the changing scene of conformity assessment resulting from the effects of globalization of trade. It offers the reader a snapshot of the driving forces in the business environment, the important elements of product compliance, the various levels of activities involved in the conformity assessment process, and the developing trends resulting from to the changing environment. Read more

What Electrical Inspectors Don’t See

by Len Frier

"Beauty is only skin deep,” could not be truer than with electrical equipment. Under that pretty cover or inside that box could be a dangerous condition waiting to explode. Even after the cover is opened a potential problem may not be easily revealed. That first view may reveal the existence of some problems; however, only after a detailed investigation and some sophisticated tests could any reasonable determination be made that there is no danger. Read more

Product Safety Field Evaluations and Construction Projects

by Greg Smith

The Laws. In many jurisdictions, state and local laws require all electrical equipment to be certified by an approved independent third-party testing laboratory. Often, these laws even impose or levy fines and imprisonment for violation! For a facility owner, or an electrical or general contractor, these laws can be an advantage, because many times, the cost of certification can be passed on to the equipment manufacturer or distributor. After all, it is their responsibility to provide a piece of equipment or system that has been evaluated and tested for electrical safety. Read more

Role of Testing and Certification Bodies

by William Fiske

The electrical safety system in North America depends on an interplay of different organizations and publications. All of them have to be carefully coordinated for the system to work. Publications include laws, regulations, codes, standards, and recommended practices. Organizations that are essential to electrical safety include standards-developing organizations, electrical installation companies, electric utilities, code enforcement groups (electrical inspectors), and testing and certification bodies. Read more

Molded-Case Circuit Breaker – Individual Pole Interrupting Capability


The 2002 National Electrical Code (NEC) has an added notation that can be confusing. The notion is a fine print note (FPN) to 240.85 of the NEC that reads, "Proper application of molded-case circuit breakers on 3-phase systems, other than solidly grounded WYE, particularly on corner-grounded delta systems, considers the individual pole interrupting capability.” A FPN is non-mandatory information according to 90.5 of the NEC. This document will explore its meaning. Read more

UL Helps AHJs Determine Code Compliance

by Mike Shulman

To accept or not to accept, that is the question authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) face on a daily basis. They encounter products with no certification markings, marks from other countries and from a host of testing laboratories. How do AHJs know which mark or service provides compliance with the NEC? Read more

Arc-Flash Protection and the 2002 NEC

by Michael Callanan

Significant number of electricians are being seriously burned and often killed from an accidental electrical flash while working equipment "hot.” Most of these serious accidents can be eliminated or significantly reduced if the electricians wear the proper type of protective clothing. Read more

Bowling for Safety?

by Richard Meyer

More than 100 million people in approximately 90 countries world wide enjoy the sport of bowling. Bowling has a long and intriguing history tracing its ancestry back to the Egyptians around 3200 BC. In the early 1950s, one of the first automatic pinsetter machines was introduced into bowling alleys. Fifty years ago, this machine was a mechanical marvel, easy to operate, quick to repair, and built to last. Maybe it was built to last too long. Read more

The Sum of Their Parts – Why Component Acceptance Makes Good Business Sense

by Nino Mancini

In today’s tough economic conditions, with shorter production cycles and pressure on margins, manufacturers are looking for ways to build safe products faster and smarter. Regulations often require that products meet certain electrical standards, such as UL standards or the National Electrical Code. When products have been certified to meet these standards, they are typically identified with a mark applicable for that market, such as the CSA US mark for the U.S. or the CSA mark for Canada. Read more



Importance of Safety

by Philip Cox

The misuse of electrical energy can be dangerous to both people and property. Electrical equipment and systems installed, used, and maintained correctly have a proven record of safety. It is the misapplication and abuse of electrical equipment and materials that primarily create hazards. Not only during May, the designated Electrical Safety Month, but also every day of the year, attention should be given to promoting the safe use of electricity. All users of electrical products should become more aware of the need for their being alert for and being capable of recognizing many common electrical hazards. Read more

Canadian Code

Substation Grounding

by Leslie Stoch

In this article, we will review the measurements needed to ensure that substation grounding resistance and resistivity are low, so we can be sure that people are able to work safely in and around an outdoor station. Read more

Other Code

Math Behind Extreme Wind Loading

by David Young

In the last IAEI News (March/April 2002), I shared with you the details of the new extreme wind loading requirements of the 2002 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC). For structures sixty feet tall and shorter, the extreme wind loading only applies to the structure. For structures taller than sixty feet, the extreme wind loading applies to the structure and all the supported facilities. To understand the impact of the 2002 revision, lets crank through an example calculation. Read more

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