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January-February 2003
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Standards through Consensus for Electrical Products in Canada

by Brian Haydon

In Canada, CSA is one of four nationally accredited Standard Development Organizations (SDO) and publishes Canada’s electrical code and electrical product standards. The Canadian Electrical Code (CE Code) is the governing electrical code for the majority of Canada, and consists of two parts. Read more

The Truth About AFCIs (Part 1)

by George Gregory and Alan Manche

Arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs) have just become required for installation in residences under the 2002 National Electrical Code (NEC). Not surprisingly, questions have been raised regarding their application and even the need for them. There have been marketing pitches, technical opinions and, quite frankly, intentional misinformation floating around various industry channels. The intent of this article is to bring out the truth about what AFCIs are and what they are not. Read more

Disconnecting Means for Motor and Air-conditioning Equipment

by Michael Johnston

The purpose of electrical codes is practical safe guarding of persons and property from the hazards associated with electricity. Numerous prescriptive requirements address safety from the minimum standpoint. Codes and standards are the minimum rules for electrical safety, so one can easily surmise that for electrical safety one must do at least what is required by the codes. Read more

The 3rd Harmonic Blocking Filter: A Well Established Approach to Harmonic Current Mitigation

by Michael Z. Lowenstein

It has long been recognized that harmonic currents, particularly the 3rd harmonic, flowing in a wye distribution system serving multiple computer loads, are detrimental to system operation. Problems caused by these harmonic currents include overheated transformers, switchgear and wiring; random circuit breaker tripping; and reduced useable system capacity. Conventional methods used to mitigate the harmful effects of these harmonic currents include k-rated or de-rated transformers, harmonic mitigating transformers (zig-zag and phase shifting,) oversized switchgear, double or triple neutrals, and other "accommodation” techniques. Read more

Lambeau Redevelopment, Green Bay, Wisconsin: Witness Testing of the Emergency Lighting System

by Gary Buyeske

A recent Harris poll indicated the Green Bay Packers are "America’s Football Team.” If you’re a sports fan and you hear "Green Bay Packers,” you automatically think of their home, Lambeau Field, and their legendary coach, Vince Lombardi. The Packers have been playing at the same location since September 24, 1957. On that day, the Pack beat the Chicago Bears 21-17 in what was called City Stadium. City Stadium was built at a cost of $960,000. There was only seating on the East and West sides of the stadium and the capacity was 32,500. On September 11, 1965, it was renamed Lambeau Field in honor of co-founder and first coach, Curly Lambeau. Read more



Anyone Can Be a Residential Electrical Inspector?

by James W. Carpenter

What is the IAEI all about? To me the IAEI’s primary concern is safety! It insists on electrical safety wherever electricity is used. It insists on electrical safety for installers, industry workers, owners, and for future generations. To ensure greater electrical safety we support standards by sponsoring representatives on code-making bodies and standard developing committees. The IAEI educational programs are another way we strive for electrical safety. The IAEI has seminars and materials for training in a variety of different subjects. Read more

Other Code

NESC Substation Grounding – Part 3

by David Young

After completing the soil resistance measurements at the proposed substation site, the next step is the development of a mathematical equivalent soil model that is a good approximation of the actual soil resistance data. The most common models are the uniform soil model and the two-layer soil model. The uniform soil model should only be used when there is very little variation in the average resistivity with position and depth. The average resistivity referred to in IEEE Standard 81-1983 is the same as the apparent resistivity referred to in IEEE Standard 80-2000. Further discussion of the uniform soil model can be found in Clause 13.4.1, page 56 of Std. 80. More commonly, the resistivity varies greatly with depth. Read more

UL Question Corner

Is Type RHH wire in EMT, with a two-hour fire rating Listed as circuit integrity cable?

by Underwriters Laboratories

Fire resistive cables are Classified under the category "Fire Resistive Cables” (FHJR). The UL guide information can be found on page 233 of the 2001 White Book. Cables under this category are intended for installation in specific Electrical Circuit Protective Systems (FHIT) – located on page 232 of the 2001 White Book – as marked on the product or the smallest unit container. An example of the marking is noted below. Read more

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