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March-April 2004
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Riding the Winds of Change

by Bill Colavecchi

With a global compound annual growth rate of 32 percent over the past five years, wind power is the world’s fastest growing energy source, and wind turbines are currently installed or being installed in more than thirty states nationwide. Read more

Utility-interactive Static Power Inverters

by Kent Whitfield

What do fuel cells, photovoltaics, and some wind turbines have in common? If they are supplying electricity to a facility and are also capable of supplying excess energy back to the local utility, it is likely they contain a utility-interactive static power inverter. In fact, the static power inverter is one of the major keys to the future success and growth of all alternative energy technologies. Read more

Fuel Cells: State of the Industry

by Bernadette Geyer

Where are we now? This is a question that industries, especially emerging industries, should be required to ask themselves often. Being forward-looking has its advantages, but unless an industry knows where it stands, it will be unable to see very far into its future.Read more

Metal Oxide Varistor Degradation

by Kenneth Brown

The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the degradation process that can occur in metal oxide varistors (MOVs). MOVs are variable resistors primarily consisting of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the function of limiting or diverting transient voltage surges. MOVs exhibit a relative high energy absorption capability which is important to the long term stability of the device. The growing demand of ZnO varistors is due to the nonlinear characteristics as well as the range of voltage and current over which they can be used. Read more



How Long Will the Inspector’s Voice Be Heard?

by James W. Carpenter

It has been a year now since the much-dreaded dues increase. Many members realized the importance of belonging to an organization that has electrical safety as its main goal and have maintained their membership without questions about the necessity of the increase. Some have questioned the increase but stayed with IAEI because of the benefits and goals. Others have decided that the increase was too much for what they were getting, or perceived they were getting, and did not renew. Read more

Canadian Code

Personal Safety and the CEC

by Leslie Stoch

The Canadian Electrical Code provides safety standards for installation and maintenance of electrical equipment. Its object is to prevent electrical fire and shock hazards when we follow its rules. The CEC is not intended as a design standard, but only a set of least requirements to help us achieve safe electrical installations. Read more

UL Question Corner

How can we tell if a UL Listing Mark is counterfeit?

by Underwriters Laboratories

For over a century, the UL Mark, has been considered the American Symbol of Safety. Each day, employees at UL go to work for a safer world. On the other end, counterfeiters go to work to profit at the expense of the public’s well being and a company’s reputation. Read more

Other Code

Conductor Ampacity

by David Young

The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) only addresses conductor ampacity directly relative to grounding conductors. Rule 93C, page 19, requires grounding conductors to have a short-time ampacity adequate to handle the available fault current magnitude for the time it takes the source protection device to operate without melting or otherwise affecting the design characteristics of the conductor. One source for calculation of short-time ampacity is Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook published by The Aluminum Association, Inc., chapter six under short-circuit performance. Read more

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