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November-December 2004
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New Requirements for Series Rated Systems

by Joe Schomaker

A significant and controversial change was made to 2005 NEC 240.86. This article is intended to provide electrical inspectors and others in the industry with background information and to explain how the new requirements in 240.86 can be met. Read more

Perspectives on PV

* Stalking the Elusive and Somewhat Strange PV System

by John Wiles

Even as PV sales and installations are booming (especially in states or regions providing financial incentives), PV systems are still relatively rare. While many inspectors have neither seen nor inspected one, some inspectors are inundated with inspection requests for these systems. Some inspectors never want to see or inspect a PV system. The rarity of PV systems does not prepare the typical inspector when he or she comes upon one for the first time. These systems and the equipment used in them are unlike other common electrical power systems. Read more

Low-Voltage Lighting Systems Operating at 30 Volts or Less

by Mark C. Ode

Article 411 was established during the 1996 National Electrical Code (NEC) cycle to provide a separate article for low-voltage lighting systems designed and listed as a complete system. The primary reason for Article 411 was the development of a new system of low-voltage incandescent spot lighting. Read more

Certification of Factory Automation Equipment

by Chuck Goetz

A new factory is being constructed or an old factory is being updated in your jurisdiction. The owners of the facility have invested millions of dollars on industrial machinery that was manufactured in Europe and the Far East. None of the equipment is listed by a recognized qualified electrical testing laboratory. The AHJ has the difficult job of making sure the installation is NEC compliant and needs to advise the owner that in order to determine whether the equipment complies with safety requirements they need listed equipment or have the equipment field evaluated. Are there requirements for these types of machines that address all the safety concerns with this equipment? Yes, there are. UL’s Factory Automation Equipment program can be used to certify this equipment. Read more

Grounding and Bonding for Signs and Neon Installations

by Michael Johnston

IAEI has had various requests recently to provide some basic information about the grounding of electric signs and neon lighting installations and to include the bonding requirements. To that end, this article will provide a brief tour through the electrical sign circuit and focus primarily on what is required for adequate grounding of this equipment and how grounding and bonding function together to provide safety for these types of equipment and installations. Read more

Western Section Celebrates Its 100th Anniversary

by Ed Lawry

The Western Section celebrated its 100th Anniversary at its 2004 Annual Meeting held in West Des Moines, Iowa, September 19–22, 2004. Although the IAEI officially was established in 1928, the Western Section dates its history back to 1905. Read more

Your Retirement Clock is Ticking

by Jesse Abercrombie

Most members of the electrical industry know they need to save for retirement, but often they aren’t sure where to begin. "How much do I need to save each year?” "Can I maintain my current standard of living?” "When can I afford to retire?” Read more



It’s time to pass the gavel!

by Lanny McMahill

A final correspondence is a bittersweet event. My term as international president will officially end in November. Along with the gavel, I will be passing the presidential duties and responsibilities on to Gaylen Rogers. Gaylen will do a fine job of leading and representing the IAEI! Read more

Canadian Code

Making Ground-Fault Protection Work

by Leslie Stoch

This article looks at ground-fault protection in switchgear, what works and what doesn’t. We’ll look at some of the ways ground-fault protection may inadvertently become inoperable and what steps are needed to prevent this from happening. We will discuss some possible grounding schemes that are incompatible with ground fault sensing and may thereby disable your ground-fault protection equipment. Read more

UL Question Corner

What is the new process for performing a field evaluation?

by Underwriters Laboratories

UL’s Field Evaluated Product services have changed during the past year to include new processes, a uniform pricing schedule and improved delivery. But one thing hasn’t changed: field evaluations still often occur as unplanned have-to-get-it-done-today-or-mybusiness-can’t-open” events. UL conducts field evaluations to meet customers’ needs and to provide AHJs the information they need to "approve” installations. A field evaluation can be broken down into four phases, all often taking place in a few days: the request, dispatching of qualified field engineers, the evaluation and the report. Read more

Other Code

Basic Electricity, Part 3

by David Young

In parts one and two of this series, I have only spoken about direct current (DC), were the source of voltage is trying to push the current in one direction. Another form of electricity is alternating current (AC) in which the voltage source alternates the current direction. Everything I have covered in parts one and two apply to both DC and AC. As I continue I will point out the differences. Read more

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