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January-February 2005
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January-February 2005 CoverJanuary/February 2005


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Receptacle Grades: What Do They Mean?

by Charles S. Kurten

In today’s world there are so many different types of receptacles to choose from—straight blade, locking-type, and pin and sleeve. The variety of straight blade receptacles offered by manufacturers alone is staggering—in fact, wiring device manufacturers produce and market more than a 1,000 different types. Differences include electrical rating, color, style, sizes, and configuration. Receptacles are marketed using terms such as general grade, specification grade, heavy duty, industrial grade, commercial grade, residential grade, hospital grade, specialty grade, and fed spec. There are, however, only four receptacle identities that are specified in the Standard for Attachment Plugs and Receptacles, ANSI/UL 498 and CSA CAN/C22.2 No. 42-99, General Use Receptacles, Attachment Plugs, and Similar Wiring Devices. Read more

Perspectives on PV

* Do You Know Where Your Cables Are Tonight?

by John Wiles

The use of fine stranded, flexible cables appears to be increasing each year. This is particularly true with relatively "young” industries like the photovoltaic (PV) industry, the fuel cell industry, and the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) industries. In many cases, technicians and installers in these fields prefer to use fine-stranded flexible cables in the larger sizes (1/0 AWG and up) due to the perceived easier installation of these cables. Read more

New Short-Circuit Current Rating Requirements Facilitate Compliance with 110.10

by Todd Lottmann

Well, another three years has passed and with it another revision cycle of the NEC has been completed. As so often happens during code cycles, several significant changes occurred during the 2005 NEC code cycle. One of the more significant changes is the new requirement for industrial machinery electrical panels, industrial control panels, certain HVAC equipment, meter disconnects, and certain motor controllers to be marked with a short-circuit current rating. This article will discuss these new marking requirements and equipment affected, provide background information on the need for these changes, and discuss the role that the inspector plays in enforcement of these new requirements. Read more

Under the Watchful Eye of the Inspector – Hot Spots

by Michael Johnston

Electrical inspectors as well as building inspectors have important roles in assuring safety for persons and property. It is essential for safety that jurisdictions establish and maintain an effective code enforcement program. Inspections of installed work provide an opportunity for potential shock hazards, electrocution, fire and other hazards to be identified and corrected before the occurrence of such sad and unnecessary events. Read more

Changes to Fire Pump Requirements


This article provides an overview of the information contained in the new Analysis of Changes, 2005 NEC regarding a few of the more significant changes to the requirements for fire pump installations in Article 695. The revisions to the 2002 NEC rules include changes to the overcurrent protection requirements, overcurrent device selection, disconnecting means locations, power circuit wiring sizes, and overload protection. Read more

Is Your Money Working As Hard As You?

by Jesse Abercrombie

Labor Day will be here again before you know it—the day when we officially recognize the contributions that workers have made to this country. But this Labor Day, why not also consider how hard your money is working for you? You may be surprised by what you find. Read more

2005 International President: Gaylen Rogers

by Gaylen Rogers

Gaylen D. Rogers started out his electrical career while attending West High School (WHS) in Salt Lake City, Utah. WHS offered an electricity class as part of its curriculum and this course started Gaylen on his path to becoming international president. Read more



Weighing Benefits Against Leadership

by James W. Carpenter

After making the rounds to all six section meetings with International President Lanny McMahill and four meetings with Vice President of International Affairs Doug Geralde, we learned once again that even though things are different many things are the same. The uniqueness of each section was evident but as we met with leaders and members it was clear that all had similar goals and problems, no, make that, opportunities. Read more

Canadian Code

What is the Canadian Electrical Code – Part 1

by Leslie Stoch

A title page note says: "The Canadian Electrical Code, Part I is a voluntary code for adoption and enforcement by regulatory authorities.” Regulatory authorities—you know who they are—the electrical inspection authorities in all of Canada’s provinces and territories. On its own, the code has no basis in law. It only becomes the law when adopted and legislated with or without amendments by the "regulatory authorities” in each province or territory. Some jurisdictions need to make extensive amendments, while others have very few. Read more

UL Question Corner

Other than the typical fire and shock hazards, are there other safety concerns with motor-operated door systems that are commonly used for security in stores such as on pharmacy service counters?

by Underwriters Laboratories

Yes. Motor-operated door systems are listed under the category Door, Drapery, Gate Louver and Window Operators and Systems, (FDDR), located on page 224 of the 2004 General Information on Electrical Equipment Directory (The White Book). The standard is UL Standard for Safety for Door, Drapery, Gate, Louver, and Window Operators and Systems, UL 325. Read more

Other Code

Basic Electricity, Part 4

by David Young

In Part 2 of this series in the September/October issue, I worked through two simple example voltage-drop calculations. In both examples, I calculated what voltage I would have to have at the house to insure the voltage of 120 V at the chicken coop. Let’s call this calculation method A. The reason I used method A was because I had limited information about the bulb and heater. In each case, the manufacturer’s information only gave me the power requirement of each load when operating at 120 V. Read more

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