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July-August 2005
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July-August 2005 CoverJuly-August 2005


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Case Study: Drive Retrofit Boosts

by Ken J. Graber

The Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative of Florida is a 54-member sugar farmers’ cooperative that provides its members assistance with agricultural administration and processing operations for their more than 70,000 acres of sugarcane. At its Belle Glade plant, 24,000 tons of sugar cane is ground daily, producing 350,000 tons of raw sugar annually, on average. During the October through April harvest season, the plant operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Because sugar cane must be processed within a day of harvest, high throughput is essential. Read more

Perspectives on PV

* Updates: Grounding PV Systems and Fine Stranded Conductors

by John Wiles

In the "Perspectives on PV” article in the September-October 2004 issue of the IAEI News, the subject of grounding PV systems was covered in some detail. In the March-April 2005, IAEI News, we discussed the changes to Article 690 that appear in the 2005 National Electrical Code. As normally happens over the three-year code development cycle, new thoughts and ideas come to the forefront about how things should be done. Here are some of those thoughts as they apply to grounding smaller PV systems with single inverters sized below about 10 kW. Figure 1 shows the dc grounding for a PV system as spelled out in Section 690.47 of NEC-2005 and as described in the above-mentioned article. Read more

Natural and Artificially Made Bodies of Water – Dealing with the New Article 682

by E.P. Hamilton

The development of effective standards and guidelines for the design and construction of safe electrical facilities in water-related recreation, landscaping and commercial areas is an evolving discipline that is gaining in importance as these types of facilities become more popular. While the general class of facilities addressed here has existed for many years, there has been no specific guidance and regulation until development of NEC-2005. This discussion addresses the new requirements for such facilities. Read more

Grounding Separately Derived Systems

by Michael Johnston

Separately derived systems can be grounded or ungrounded. The primary difference between a grounded derived system and an ungrounded derived system is that no intentionally grounded system conductor exists in an ungrounded system. All conductors derived from these systems are ungrounded conductors. Where the separately derived system is required to be grounded as provided in 250.20(A) or (B), it must be grounded in accordance with the rules in 250.30(A). Ungrounded separately derived systems must be grounded in accordance with 250.30(B). This article provides a concise review of the rules for grounded separately derived systems and some application examples. Read more

Natural and Artificially Made Bodies of Water

by Jim Maldonado

In the nearly 30 years that I have been dealing with the National Electrical Code, it never ceases to amaze me how many new applications we as code officials encounter that require us to apply the Code to installations not directly mentioned in the Code. Many times we look at installations during inspections or plan review and think, I know it’s wrong, but how do I back my position with the Code? At other times we examine an installation that just doesn’t seem right or in accordance with the intent of the Code and ask, "What sections cover this type of work or does the Code prohibit this type of installation?” Read more

Steer Your 401k Into a "Safe Harbor”

by Jesse Abercrombie

If you run your own small business, you may well be in need of a good retirement plan. At one time, you might have considered a 401(k), only to discard the idea when you realized that some of the costs and burdens—such as testing requirements to ensure fair contributions to all employees—might prevent you and your key employees from fully benefiting from the plan. But now, you’ve got a "safe harbor” in which to place your 401(k), away from the uncertainties of whether you will benefit. Read more



It’s That Time of Year Again!

by James W. Carpenter

It’s summertime and that means that annual section meetings dates are close at hand. This year’s meetings should be especially interesting and beneficial to not only the electrical inspector but to all electrical industry people. Read more

Canadian Code

CE Code: Appendix B

by Leslie Stoch

Canadian Electrical Code users have no doubt noticed the reminder (see Appendix B) next to the headings of many code rules. Appendix B is there to help us understand and correctly interpret the requirements of the code. It provides supplementary information including explanations, interpretations, other standards and sources of information to assist users in applying the rules so identified. It also gives us a better idea of what an inspector will expect. It’s a very good idea, in particular when applying a rule for the first time, to take a look at what Appendix B has to say. Read more

Canadian Perspectives

Dual Role of Electrical Regulators

by Ark Tsisserev

The Canadian electrical safety system is an envy of many countries that use their installation codes for regulatory purposes. This system is an excellent example of uniformity and consistency on application of the Canadian Electrical Code throughout jurisdictional areas of the country. Read more

Other Code

Basic Electricity, Part 7

by David Young

In Part 2, I discussed power. A light bulb rated at 100 watts and 120 volts will use 100 watts of power when operating at 120 volts. If I wanted to operate ten 100-watt light bulbs on a gasoline powered generator, the rated power output of the generator would have to be at least 1000 watts. The rated horsepower of the gasoline engine that runs the generator is related to the rated power output of the generator. Energy is power times time. Electrical energy is usually measured in watt hours abbreviated Wh, kilo-watt hours abbreviated kWh, and mega-watt hours abbreviated MWh. If we operate ten 100-watt light bulbs for 24 hours, we would have used 1000 watts X 24 hours = 24,000 Wh or 24 kWh of energy. Read more

UL Question Corner

Are fire alarms listed as a system and not just listed components?

by Underwriters Laboratories

Fire alarm equipment is listed as individual products; however, these products are evaluated as part of a complete system. The compatible Listed equipment that forms the alarm system is specified in the installation instructions/wiring diagram referenced on the Listed product’s marking, by part number and revision level, and included with the product. The compatibility may be identified in the installation instructions for either the control unit or the device connected to the control unit. Read more

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