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November-December 2005
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Bonding Metal Piping Systems

by Michael Johnston

Article 250 of the National Electrical Code provides the minimum requirements for grounding and bonding. The title of the article was revised in the 2005 NEC development process to reflect what is actually covered by the article. Read more

Perspectives on PV

* Neither Sleet nor Snow nor Rain nor the Dark of Night…

by John Wiles

Well, not exactly. Yes, all of those things will usually keep a system uses sunlight for fuel. However, these and other weather conditions also affect how a PV system is designed and installed to comply with the requirements of the National Electrical Code. With a PV power system lifetime exceeding 40 years, Mother Nature is going to use every trick in the book to make that system fail before its time. PV designers, installers, and inspectors need to devote significant attention to the weather-related safety requirements for PV systems to help ensure long-lived, hazard-free electrical installations. Read more

Residential Electrical System Aging Research Project

by Kathleen Almand

Concern has been expressed in the electrical community regarding the aging of electrical systems in residential occupancies, possibly resulting in fires. A question not yet fully answered is: "Why is there a residential electrical fire problem in the United States, even though we have such a good code?” Among the potential answers may be that electrical components, like any product, age over time. Read more

The Challenge to Having Global Codes and Standards

by Jim Pauley

There has been an increasing emphasis in recent decades to achieve international codes and standards for electrical installations and products. Although the bene-fits of unified documents and products worldwide seem obvious, the migration to such internationalization requires management that considers regional differences of elements such as: the presently installed base, practices used in construction, infrastructure and expectations of users. Read more

What Does the Falling Dollar Mean to You?

by Jesse Abercrombie

As contractors, you like to see the prices of things fall. Whenever the price of copper goes down, electrical contractors are able to bid more effectively. Whenever the price of oil goes down, it doesn’t cost as much to drive your utility trucks and vans around from project to project. If you follow economic news, you know that the U.S. dollar has dropped sharply against every major world currency. Economist and government officials are keenly interested in the falling dollar. You probably have even heard your colleagues and competitors mention it as a concern. But when the dollar falls is that a good thing? And what does it mean to you as an individual investor?Read more



The Prime Directive

by Gaylen Rogers

What do you think when someone asks, "Have you seen a good electrical inspector?” Do you reply that you see one in the mirror every morning? What principle or obligation does an electrical inspector consider as his or her "prime directive”? Read more

Canadian Code

CEC/NEC – Some Significant Differences

by Leslie Stoch

CEC Rule 14-100(d) permits the secondary conductors supplied by a high voltage power transformer to be protected by the transformer’s primary overcurrent protection (with no restriction in conductor length through the building). The rule requires that the wiring be mechanically protected and terminates at a single circuit-breaker or set of fuses set to protect the tap conductors against overloading. Read more

Canadian Perspectives

Fire Pumps Application and Installation Requirements

by Ark Tsisserev

The CE Code, Part I governs installation of various electrical equipment. A fire pump is certainly also covered by the Code requirements. But in addition to the CEC, Part I, this type of electrical equipment must meet provisions of other important documents. Read more

Other Code

Basic Electricity, Part 9

by David Young

It is time to bite the bullet. Before we can continue into three-phase electrical circuits and calculations, we have to have a solid understanding of voltage and current phase angles. To do this we turn to phasors. I’m not talking about Captain Kirk’s weapon of choice. I’m talking about a graphical representation of the voltage or current magnitude in ac electric circuits at any instant in time. To get into phasors, let’s first review a little from Part 5 of this series when I introduced the idea of alternating current (ac). Read more

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