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September-October 2007
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September-October 2007 CoverSeptember-October 2007


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Electrical Design Considerations for Educational Facilities

by Ron Janikowski

Educational facilities now demand a new set of standards for the electrical designer. Colleges, technical schools and even new high schools now require a complex system of networking throughout the classrooms, offices, libraries and administration offices. Higher educational facilities offer classes over the internet or through teleconferencing with outreach campuses. Read more

Perspectives on PV

* The Nature of the PV Module: Limited Currents Have Benefits and Drawbacks

by John Wiles

The currents in a PV system are somewhat different from the currents traveling through a typical alternating current (ac) electrical system. Yes, the PV system has ac circuits and they are somewhat like a typical ac load circuit, but the direct current (dc) circuits are a little unusual. This article will address the unique aspects of these dc currents and how the Code handles them. Read more

ESA Introduces New Inspector Training Program

by Ralph Van Haeren

How do you ensure the effective indoctrination and training of new inspectors especially when they are distributed over one million square kilometers (415,000 square miles), and serve a diverse customer base of some 12.5 million people? That is exactly the challenge the Electrical Safety Authority (ESA), the regulatory inspection agency in Ontario, Canada, faced. Read more

Arthur W. Hesse

by David Shapiro

Until the mid-1980s, Maryland and DC people had to travel to Baltimore to find regular meetings. We were welcomed by the Chesapeake Chapter, but the trip deterred some. Art Hesse removed this obstacle by resurrecting the George Washington Chapter. Read more

Critical Systems Case Study: Ultra-Low Harmonic Drives Protect Transformers and Power Grid

by John Wilmes

According to the United States Geological Survey, the average American uses about 100 gallons of water each day. This, in turn, creates more than 31 billion gallons of wastewater, which is cleaned and recycled by wastewater treatment plants across the country. Under the Homeland Security Act, wastewater facilities play a critical role in the needs of communities; ensuring wastewater is properly treated, especially in emergency situations. Read more

Battery Rooms – Accidents Waiting to Happen?

by Michael Weitzel

Dangerous conditions exist in battery rooms all over the country, but the batteries themselves are not a hazard. The hazards come from working conditions that are often unsafe because of limited paths of egress or escape, poor lighting, no working clearances, no guards for exposed live parts, and little or no ventilation. It is often difficult for the electrical worker to de-energize the battery system for maintenance, repair, or replacement of equipment. Even when disconnected from the rest of the bank, individual batteries remain energized; however, when connected to the bank, voltages may be high, and amperages even higher, which means considerable stored electrical power is present. Read more

Inspecting to the 2008 National Electrical Code

by Alan Manche

Just like clockwork, the 2008 edition of the National Electrical Code is now available, which always brings a plethora of education and materials on the changes taking place in the NEC. Understanding the changes is important to electrical inspectors in order to understand the safety or enforceability enhancements that have been made to support an electrical installation. Read more

Case Study: ITE and Cancer Treatment: Cutting Edge Technology Working Together

by Tim McClintock

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. It is expected that about 1.4 million new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in 2007, according to the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Facts and Figures 2007.1 Due to advances in medical technology, however, trends in five-year relative survival have improved greatly from 50 percent in 1975 to 66 percent in 2002, according to the study. Read more

Electrical Inspection Is Indispensable for Electrical Safety

by Michael Johnston

It is essential for safety that jurisdictions establish and maintain an effective code enforcement program. Inspections of installed work provide an opportunity to identify and correct potential hazards, such as shock, electrocution, fire and others, before some catastrophe occurs. Other benefits of code enforcement and building inspections are the positive affects on insurance rates and the reduced number of fires and injuries. Read more

Strengthening Alliances in Training

by Michael Johnston

IAEI has the principal mission of promoting electrical safety, a mission supported by the work and responsibility of the inspector. Many of the different entities in the electrical industry that strive to achieve safety by diligently carrying out their responsibilities have discovered that training is a key factor in achieving safe electrical installations. Read more

Can You Benefit from Roth 401(k)?

by Jesse Abercrombie

As another year zips by, you are a year closer to retirement. Even though that day may still be a long time away, it will eventually arrive—so you’ll need to prepare for it. Will you sell your business and use some of the income from it in retirement, or will you stay on as a consultant and continue to receive pay for your services? Both are smart choices; however, they still represent taxable income. This is taxable income that most in the electrical industry want to avoid. Recently one more retirement savings vehicle has been added—the Roth 401(k). Read more



Back in The Day

by James W. Carpenter

Back when I was in high school, which seems such a long time ago now, my English teacher had our class writing a paper every two weeks. I remember after doing several papers for that class, I began to find it harder and harder to find something to write about. I had used all the stories my mother had told my sister and me about growing up on the farm and the well had run dry, or so I thought. One Sunday night I still hadn’t started on the paper that was due the next morning, and Mother got on me for procrastinating too long. So, I wrote a paper on procrastinating; I got an A on that paper. Well, here I am now trying to write another editorial for the IAEI News. After five years, maybe the well has run dry. Read more

Canadian Code

Section 28 Motor Wiring Methods

by Leslie Stoch

Motor wiring methods are covered in Rules 28-100 to 28-112 of the Canadian Electrical Code. Wiring up a motor may seem like a pretty simple job, but we still need to consider a surprising number of details for good compliance with the code. This article will review some of the more important CEC rules for conductor ampacities as applicable to motor type, insulation class and duty service. Read more

Other Code

What Are You Paying for Electricity? Part 4, Large Commercial and Industrial Electric Rates

by David Young

To protect your and your company’s wallets, it is very important to understand the rates you are being charged for electricity. In this segment, I am going to share with you and discuss in detail the large commercial and industrial electric rates of a typical utility. The example I am using is a utility that publishes their rates on the Internet. The electric rates you are being billed may vary greatly from my example. I recommend that you contact your utility to get a copy of your rate and to find out what other rates are available to you. Some of the terms I am using in this article have been previously defined and discussed in parts 1, 2 and 3 of this series. Read more

UL Question Corner

Has UL listed any CSST? Does UL list connectors to bond CSST?
by Underwriters Laboratories

by Underwriters Laboratories

As of this writing (June 2007), UL has not Listed any CSST or any grounding or bonding fittings intended for use on hexagonal shaped CSST fittings intended to bond CSST. Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST) is a flexible corrugated tubing made of stainless steel with a polymeric jacket that is used in many areas of the country for distribution of natural gas. The technical bulletin in question recommends the use of a ground clamp secured around the hexagonal compression nuts on CSST fittings to bond the CSST gas piping system to the grounding electrode system. Read more

UL Question Corner

If underground service entrance cable Type USE conductor insulation is not marked as an RHW conductor, can USE cable be used inside for premise wiring?

by Underwriters Laboratories

Underground service-entrance cable Type USE, is not Listed for use inside for premises wiring except for termination at the service equipment or metering equipment. Multiconductor USE conductors utilize insulation that is equivalent to RHW or XHHW conductors when additionally marked as type RHW or XHHW. Single conductor Type USE cable does not have conductor insulation which is equivalent to RHW or XHHW type insulation or any other type of building wire. Read more

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